Turf Strength Specialists
Unit 8 24/26 Clyde St. Rydalmere NSW 2116
  • Ancient Egyptians wrapped seaweed around corn stalks
  • William Forsythe – Royal Gardener of King George III (1700’s)
    • Applied lime, ashes from bones and wood.
  • Researchers in California and Oregon (1914)
    • Applied fertilizers with insecticides
  • Dr. H.B. Tukey – Michigan State (1956)
    • Studies with radio isotopes confirmed the highly efficient uptake of fertilizers through foliage
  • Very slow, gradual acceptance by the industry and academic institutions. Now widely accepted by most, but not all.
  • Fast, linear nutrient delivery
  • Gives the superintendent control
  • More efficient than soil applications
    • Up to 95% efficient vs. 10 to 50%
  • Bypasses soil tie-ups and losses
  • Important in turf because of limited root systems
  • Better delivery when soils are cold, wet and lack oxygen

Soild applied fertilizers are inefficient*

  • Nitrogen – 20 to 60%
  • Phosphorus – 10 to 30%
  • Potassium – 25 to 60%
  • Calcium, Magnesium, Sulfur – 10 to 60%
  • Micro-nutrients – 0 to 50%

Foliar feeding can be 95% efficient**

  • They are generally 9 to 20 times more efficient than soil applied nutrients

 

*According to studies by the PPI (Phosphorus and Potash Institute), Univeristy of Iowa, The Fluid Journal and other university publications.

**According to radioisotope studies at Michigan State University and others.

  • Bypasses tie-ups between nutrients like calcium, phosphates, iron, zinc.
  • Avoids leaching, volatilization and conversion losses of nitrogen
  • Eliminates competition between similar elements like sodium-potassium, calcium-magnesium, etc.
  • Avoids fixation by soil clays, metal oxides and anions like bicarbonates and phosphates.
  • Turfgrass roots are pathetic compared to other plants
  • Turf soils are very low in CEC and are subject to high leaching
  • Turf roots are weakened by lack of oxygen, diseases and nematodes
  • Turf soils are notoriously lacking in oxygen, which is absolutely necessary for nutrient uptake
  • Compaction reduces poor space
  • Thatch accumulation clogs soil pores
  • Bypasses soil tie-ups and losses
  • Frequent irrigation and rains fill soil pores with water and exclude air
  • Spray volume and droplet size
  • Drift control
  • spreading and sticking
  • pH
  • Air temperature and time of day
  • Stomatal opening
  • Uptake enhancers
  • Translocation agents
  • All of the foliar product should stay on the leaf and not run off the foliage into the soil
  • Best efficiency is at 25 to 50 gallons per acre (about 200 to 400 l/ha)l
  • Spray droplets must be a fine mist
  • Use covered sprayer or anti-drift agent (XACT) where needed
  • Spray should wet the entire leaf surface on front and back of the leaf
  • Surface tension needs to be broken to allow for penetration of cuticle and saturation of the sub stomatal chamber
  • Waxy cuticle is really a set of waxy scales (under the microscope)
  • Surface tension needs to be broken in order to keep the droplets from rolling off the leaf and to help them penetrate the cuticle
  • Watch out for pure water. It has very high surface tension. Additional spreader/sticker may be advised
  • Raider technology opens stomates
  • pH extremes of over 8.0 or below 5.0 should be avoided.
  • Optimum absorption of nutrients happens at 5.5 to 6.5 pH
  • Adjust pH with FP 747 to appropriate pH of 6.0
  • Dropping pH to 6.0 drives off most of the bicarbonates from the spray solution
  • Air temperature should be at least 50 degrees F or 11 degrees C.
  • Best absorption happens at warm but not hot temperatures
  • Higher air humidity favors absorption too
  • Optimum time to spray during the summer is in the early morning or late evening
  • It is best to spray after dew removal to avoid dilution of the product
  • During the cool season, it may be best to spray in the afternoon
  • Allow at least 4 hours before rain or irrigation
  • Some sticker products may allow for rainfastness
  • 40-80% of the nutrient uptake occurs in the sub-stomatal chamber
  • Raider opens stomates immediately and keeps them open for about an hour after application
  • The silicon based spreader/sticker in Raider and Score are ideal for breaking the surface tension and allowing the product to flood the stomates
  • Cells in the sub-stomatal chamber are very efficient at absorbing and translocating nutrients
  • High purity leads to faster uptake
  • Low burn potential
  • No risk of toxicity
  • Better compatibility